Ductility, Capacity of a material to deform permanently (e.g., stretch, bend, or spread) in response to stress. Most common steels, for example, are quite ductile and hence can accommodate local stress concentrations. Brittle materials, such as glass, cannot accommodate concentrations of stress because they lack ductility, and therefore fracture easily. When a material specimen is stressed, it deforms elastically at first; above a certain deformation, called the elastic limit, deformation becomes permanent.
Elasticity, ability of a deformed material body to return to its original shape and size when the forces causing the deformation are removed. A body with this ability is said to behave (or respond) elastically.
To a greater or lesser extent, most solid materials exhibit elastic behaviour, but there is a limit to the magnitude of the force and the accompanying deformation within which elastic recovery is possible for any given material. This limit, called the elastic limit, is the maximum stress or force per unit area within a solid material that can arise before the onset of permanent deformation. Stresses beyond the elastic limit cause a material to yield or flow. For such materials the elastic limit marks the end of elastic behaviour and the beginning of plastic behaviour. For most brittle materials, stresses beyond the elastic limit result in fracture with almost no plastic deformation.
The elastic limit depends markedly on the type of solid considered; for example, a steel bar or wire can be extended elastically only about 1 percent of its original length, while for strips of certain rubberlike materials, elastic extensions of up to 1,000 percent can be achieved. Steel is much stronger than rubber, however, because the tensile force required to effect the maximum elastic extension in rubber is less (by a factor of about 0.01) than that required for steel. The elastic properties of many solids in tension lie between these two extremes.
The different macroscopic elastic properties of steel and rubber result from their very different microscopic structures. The elasticity of steel and other metals arises from short-range interatomic forces that, when the material is unstressed, maintain the atoms in regular patterns. Under stress the atomic bonding can be broken at quite small deformations. By contrast, at the microscopic level, rubberlike materials and other polymers consist of long-chain molecules that uncoil as the material is extended and recoil in elastic recovery. The mathematical theory of elasticity and its application to engineering mechanics is concerned with the macroscopic response of the material and not with the underlying mechanism that causes it.
In a simple tension test, the elastic response of materials such as steel and bone is typified by a linear relationship between the tensile stress (tension or stretching force per unit area of cross section of the material), σ, and the extension ratio (difference between extended and initial lengths divided by the initial length), e. In other words, σ is proportional to e; this is expressed σ = Ee, where E, the constant of proportionality, is called Young’s modulus. The value of E depends on the material; the ratio of its values for steel and rubber is about 100,000. The equation σ = Ee is known as Hooke’s law and is an example of a constitutive law. It expresses, in terms of macroscopic quantities, something about the nature (or constitution) of the material. Hooke’s law applies essentially to one-dimensional deformations, but it can be extended to more general (three-dimensional) deformations by the introduction of linearly related stresses and strains (generalizations of σ and e) that account for shearing, twisting, and volume changes. The resulting generalized Hooke’s law, upon which the linear theory of elasticity is based, provides a good description of the elastic properties of all materials, provided that the deformations correspond to extensions not exceeding about 5 percent. This theory is commonly applied in the analysis of engineering structures and of seismic disturbances.
The elastic limit is in principle different from the proportional limit, which marks the end of the kind of elastic behaviour that can be described by Hooke’s law, namely, that in which the stress is proportional to the strain (relative deformation) or equivalently that in which the load is proportional to the displacement. The elastic limit nearly coincides with the proportional limit for some elastic materials, so that at times the two are not distinguished; whereas for other materials a region of nonproportional elasticity exists between the two.
The linear theory of elasticity is not adequate for the description of the large deformations that can occur in rubber or in soft human tissue such as skin. The elastic response of these materials is nonlinear except for very small deformations and, for simple tension, can be represented by the constitutive law σ = f (e), where f (e) is a mathematical function of e that depends on the material and that approximates to Ee when e is very small. The term nonlinear means that the graph of σ plotted against e is not a straight line, by contrast with the situation in the linear theory. The energy, W(e), stored in the material under the action of the stress σ represents the area under the graph of σ = f (e). It is available for transfer into other forms of energy—for example, into the kinetic energy of a projectile from a catapult.
The stored-energy function W(e) can be determined by comparing the theoretical relation between σ and e with the results of experimental tension tests in which σ and e are measured. In this way, the elastic response of any solid in tension can be characterized by means of a stored-energy function. An important aspect of the theory of elasticity is the construction of specific forms of strain-energy function from the results of experiments involving three-dimensional deformations, generalizing the one-dimensional situation described above.
Strain-energy functions can be used to predict the behaviour of the material in circumstances in which a direct experimental test is impractical. In particular, they can be used in the design of components in engineering structures. For example, rubber is used in bridge bearings and engine mountings, where its elastic properties are important for the absorption of vibrations. Steel beams, plates, and shells are used in many structures; their elastic flexibility contributes to the support of large stresses without material damage or failure. The elasticity of skin is an important factor in the successful practice of skin grafting. Within the mathematical framework of the theory of elasticity, problems related to such applications are solved. The results predicted by the mathematics depend critically on the material properties incorporated in the strain-energy function, and a wide range of interesting phenomena can be modeled.
Gases and liquids also possess elastic properties since their volume changes under the action of pressure. For small volume changes, the bulk modulus, κ, of a gas, liquid, or solid is defined by the equation P = −κ(V − V0)/V0, where P is the pressure that reduces the volume V0 of a fixed mass of material to V. Since gases can in general be compressed more easily than liquids or solids, the value of κ for a gas is very much less than that for a liquid or solid. By contrast with solids, fluids cannot support shearing stresses and have zero Young’s modulus