Amalgam, alloy of mercury and one or more other metals. Amalgams are crystalline in structure, except for those with a high mercury content, which are liquid. Known since early times, they were mentioned by Pliny the Elder in the 1st century AD. In dentistry, an amalgam of silver and tin, with minor amounts of copper and zinc, is used to fill teeth.
A sodium amalgam is formed during the manufacture of chlorine and sodium hydroxide by the electrolysis of brine in cells wherein a stream of mercury constitutes the negative electrode. Reaction of the amalgam with water produces a solution of sodium hydroxide and regenerates the mercury for reuse.
Fine particles of silver and gold can be recovered by agitating their ores with mercury and allowing the resultant pasty or liquid amalgam to settle. By distillation of the amalgam, the mercury is reclaimed, and the precious metals are isolated as a residue.
Amalgams of silver, gold, and palladium are known in nature. Moschellandsbergite, silver amalgam, is found at Moschellandsberg, Ger.; Sala, Swed.; and Isère, France. Gold amalgam occurs in California, U.S., Colombia, and Borneo. For detailed physical properties of naturally occurring amalgams, see native element (table).
Alloy, metallic substance composed of two or more elements, as either a compound or a solution. The components of alloys are ordinarily themselves metals, though carbon, a nonmetal, is an essential constituent of steel.
Alloys are usually produced by melting the mixture of ingredients. The value of alloys was discovered in very ancient times; brass (copper and zinc) and bronze (copper and tin) were especially important. Today, the most important are the alloy steels, broadly defined as steels containing significant amounts of elements other than iron and carbon. The principal alloying elements for steel are chromium, nickel, manganese, molybdenum, silicon, tungsten, vanadium, and boron. Alloy steels have a wide range of special properties, such as hardness, toughness, corrosion resistance, magnetizability, and ductility. Nonferrous alloys, mainly copper–nickel, bronze, and aluminum alloys, are much used in coinage. The distinction between an alloying metal and an impurity is sometimes subtle; in aluminum, for example, silicon may be considered an impurity or a valuable component, depending on the application, because silicon adds strength though it reduces corrosion resistance.
The term fusible metals, or fusible alloys, denotes a group of alloys that have melting points below that of tin (232° C, 449° F). Most of these substances are mixtures of metals that by themselves have low melting points, such as tin, bismuth, and lead. Fusible alloys are used as solder, in safety sprinklers that automatically spray out water when the heat of a fire melts the alloy, and in fuses for interrupting an electrical circuit when the current becomes excessive.
Many fusible alloys are formulated to melt at 90–100° C (194–212° F); for example, Darcet’s alloy (50 parts bismuth, 25 lead, 25 tin) melts at 98° C. By replacing half the tin in Darcet’s alloy with cadmium, the alloy Wood’s metal, which melts at 70° C, is obtained.