Consider the ideal batch reactor illustrated in Figure 3.2.1. If it is assumed that the contents of the reactor are perfectly mixed, a material balance on the reactor can be written for a species i as:
An important class of carbon-carbon bond coupling reactions is the Diels-Alder reactions. An example of a Diels-Alder reaction is shown below:
Consider the semibatch reactor schematically illustrated in Figure 3.2.1. This type of reactor is useful for accomplishing several classes of reactions. Fermentations are often conducted in semibatch reactors. For example, the concentration of glucose in a fermentation can be controlled by varying its concentration and flow rate into the reactor in order to have the appropriate times for: (1) the initial growth phase of the biological catalysts, and (2) the period of metabolite production. Additionally, many bioreactors are semibatch even if liquid-phase reactants are not fed to the reactor because oxygen must be continuously supplied to maintain the living catalyst systems.